well understood that sailing while inebriated is a very bad idea. It’s contrary
to Tradewinds policy, and it’s against the law. But even on one’s own boat,
offshore beyond the reach of society’s sanctions, the notion that one can
confront the sea with less than his best game represents a cracking good
example of overconfidence.
being granted, one would have to be living under the proverbial rock to be
unaware of the fact that hard drink has a long association with sailing—so long
that it was less than five decades ago that the British Navy abandoned its
daily distribution of alcohol to men on warships. It’s hard to believe they
were drunk while blasting away at the enemy with cannon fire in all those
legendary battles. But come to think of it, it’s just as hard to believe they
weren’t. The practice has spawned a whole category of colorful phrases like
“splice the main brace,” “groggy,” “three sheets to the wind,” and “the sun’s
over the yardarm.” The first three of these are amply defined in Admiral W. H.
Smyth’s commodious lexicon of 1867, but the last goes unmentioned despite the
author’s obvious fondness for salty language. In fact it doesn’t appear until
1899, well past the golden age of sail, when Rudyard Kipling uses it in Sea to Sea, and even then not in a
particularly nautical context. In a passage excoriating the loutish behavior of
Americans, he writes: “As you know, of
course, the American does not drink at meals as a sensible man should. Indeed,
he has no meals. He stuffs for ten minutes thrice a day. Also he has no decent
notions about the sun being over the yard-arm or below the horizon. He pours
his vanity into himself at unholy hours, and indeed he can hardly help it.”
Yeah, Rudyard, but we won the Revolution.
we can ask, just what is a “yardarm,”
anyway, and how do we use it to measure the height of the sun? Having
accomplished that, how to we convert the sun’s altitude to establish the time
of day? Can it have been this easy to tell the hour by just looking up at the
rigging? Even though the answers to all these questions are of no use
whatsoever to the modern mariner, they will be the subject of our next few
By: Mike Holmes – Assistant Watch Leader – CV23 – Team WTC Logistics
At the start of January, I headed off on an adventure, sailing as crew and assistant watch leader in the 2019-2020 Clipper Round the World Yacht Race, an ocean yacht race for amateur sailors. I participated in Leg 5, with the original scheduled route from Australia to China. With the COVID-19 outbreak our plans would change, but more on that later.
During the race, myself and 17 other crew spent 37 days at sea, sailed 6,000 nautical miles between 2 separate races, crossed the equator, spent hours becalmed in the doldrums, and experienced the high of a race win and low of a race loss. What an experience it has been!
The eleven 70’ one-design yachts left London in September 2019 for the 40,000+ nautical mile journey around the world, broken into 8 separate legs, and taking 11 months to complete. The yachts had left Fremantle, Western Australia in December and were due to arrive into Airlie Beach, Queensland, Australia around the 11th of January.
I had arrived at the Coral Sea Marina in Airlie Beach on the 8th of January. I was able to spend time exploring the area including a few snorkeling trips to the Great Barrier Reef and a trip to Whitehaven Beach. Such a beautiful part of the world, outside of all the aquatic creatures that can kill you! Think sharks, salt water crocodiles, Irukandji and Box jellyfish!
The race was originally scheduled to depart on January 18th but we were delayed by 48 hours due to two of the boats not having operational water makers. Heading out into the tropics on a water ration of two liters, per person, per day was doable, but not recommended.
We departed the Coral Sea Marina on January 20th, but it would be another two days before the actual start of the race. We were to motor through the Great Barrier Reef and start the race just offshore, but the lack of wind postponed the race start. Because of this, we continued motoring north of east, towards the Solomon Sea.
This delay of 24 hours allowed the fleet to stop for an afternoon swim in 1,400 feet of water in the middle of the Coral Sea. What an amazing experience to jump off the yacht and try to “cool off” in 86-degree Fahrenheit sea water.
The next day, January 22nd, the wind had filled in and we were able to start the race. This would be a LeMan’s start, where all eleven boats lined up abreast of one another, with a full mainsail up, head sails rigged to hoist, and motoring at about 7kts speed over ground. Crew are required to stand behind the aft coffee grinder prior to the start. With one minute to go the engine is shutoff. The countdown is conducted by a designated lead skipper over VHF radio. At ZERO, the crew rush to their predesignated positions. The boat that can hoist and trim their head sails the quickest will lead the fleet off the line.
We were located the second boat to windward with all boats on starboard tack. I was one of the sweaters, so my role was at the mast, hoisting the large yankee head sail by pulling down on the attached halyard. The yankee 1 is only 1,255 square feet of sail that has to be hoisted to the top of the mast, some 95’ above the waterline! Race start went smooth and within the first hour we were in the top half of the fleet, which isn’t saying much in a 4,000+ nautical mile race! We had a long way to go.
It would be light wind sailing for the next few weeks. After about a week at sea we received notice from the race office of the corona-virus (COVID-19) that was being reported as an outbreak in China. We didn’t know the extent of it but we were told it would most likely affect our race. About two more weeks went by before the official word came out that our race finish was being changed from Sanya, China to Subic Bay, Philippines. We were disappointed by this news but understood the reasoning and it ultimately played into our favor.
As we left the Coral Sea and entered the Solomon Sea, the doldrums motoring corridor lay just ahead. Doldrums are the nickname for the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), an area known for light winds as weather patterns from the northern and southern hemisphere converge.
This section of the race course is aptly named due to the fact that teams can opt to turn on their engines. Wait? What? I thought this was a sailboat race? Let me explain, in order to maintain an arrival window to the next port and keep the overall program on schedule, teams can motor through the doldrums.
For this race, teams could motor between 8 degrees south and 4 degrees south, a distance of 240 nautical miles and roughly where the doldrums were located at this time of year. The caveat is you have to motor for 36 consecutive hours. If you arrive at 4 degrees south before the 36 hours is up you must wait there until time expires before proceeding north. If you started motoring too early you may be short of the 4-degree marker. The motoring corridor would present itself as the first chance for a tactical maneuver.
Our skipper reviewed the weather forecast (GRIB files) and made the call to delay our motoring corridor start to maximize the amount of northerly latitude we could gain within the hours allocated for motoring. We were towards the very back of the fleet entering the motoring corridor as all the other boats had started their motoring prior while we were stuck in a wind hole.
Luckily the weather forecast was correct and soon enough the wind built and we started to catch up with the rest of the fleet. As the competitors ended their motoring corridor time allocation, they were still short of 4 degrees north and they ended up in a wind hole. We continued to motor past them and went from last place to 2nd place. It was a brilliant tactical play and set the stage for the remainder of the race.
We continued north and after 12 days at sea we crossed the equator on January 31st at 0 degrees 0.00′ north, 151 degrees 5.249′ east. It was in the middle of the night as we crossed but all the crew were awake and on deck to mark this special occasion. King Neptune would hold his court later that day.
A seafarer tradition, all crew that cross the equator for the first time have to attend King Neptune’s court. This is the ceremony where the crew go from being a pollywog to a shellback. This includes confessing a boat sin and having to eat a special mixture from Davy Jones’ galley. Let’s just say, I’m glad I have already crossed the equator before, in 2008 aboard the T/S Golden Bear with the California Maritime Academy.
As we continued heading north of west towards the Luzon Strait, some 2,000 nautical miles away, we went from wind hole to wind hole. This required constant sail changes with the most used sail being the windseeker. This large, light wind sail has an area of 1,750 square feet and is a cross between a yankee head sail and a small spinnaker. It is most like a gennaker sail. Once the wind would approach 10kts apparent wind speed this sail would be dropped and a yankee head sail hoisted. In addition, we were also constantly hoisting and lowering the stay sail which only provided benefit above 7kts of apparent wind.
Finally, a low-pressure system developed that we could utilize to slingshot ourselves towards the northern tip of the race course. In a matter of 24 hours we saw the wind build to 25kts+ with a sea state between 3 meters and 4 meters. With the wind just abaft the beam it was great spinnaker weather!
Our spinnaker of choice was the Code 2, which has a sail area of 3,465 square feet and is rated for up 20kts of apparent wind speed. It was so much fun on the helm of a 70′ ocean racing yacht with a spinnaker up in a moderate to rough sea state. I was in a constant state of bliss, surfing a 49-tonne yacht down waves at speeds up to 20kts SOG.
Our position on the race course, sitting about 6th at the time, was favorable to this low-pressure system and we saw massive gains on the lead yachts. Every 6 hours we received an update from the race office on our position relative to the fleet. It was encouraging as we continued to decrease the distance to the boats in front of us. Our skipper reminded us, focus on the boat in front, once we pass them then focus on the next boat, don’t worry about the front runners. At this point we thought we may be able to get on the podium in 3rd place.
As we exited the Luzon Strait and entered the South China Sea, the next tactical decision was to head inshore or offshore as we raced south towards Subic Bay, Philippines. The two lead boats headed offshore, but the weather forecast showed an inshore route that could potentially be favorable. Our skipper opted for this inshore route. It would be a few days of chutes and ladders before we knew if we had made the right tactical choice.
48 Hours later and we were chasing down 1st place. At the same time, the two boats that were leading a few days prior but offshore were now in 3rd and 4th place. They altered course and dove deep inshore, which saw them sneak up on our inside. With only 100 nautical miles to the finish it was still anyone’s race. At this point we saw the first-place boat head slightly more offshore in search of a little more wind. Our skipper took the helm and was able to keep the inshore boats at bay. All of a sudden, we found ourselves sitting in first place.
The next 12 hours were intense. Not only from a sailing perspective, but from a mental perspective. We knew we were capable, but with the variable wind and the top boats breathing down our transom, we knew we couldn’t ease off or celebrate until we crossed the finish line.
I remember going to bed that night, hearing the whooshing sound of water along the hull adjacent to my bunk. That was a positive sound, a sound that we were moving through the water at a good speed towards the finish line. Then the sound stopped.
Another bloody wind hole! I came on deck for my watch at 0200 with only 25 nautical miles to go in the race. I started praying to the wind gods, and literally the wind started to pick up. It was a very surreal moment. The wind started to build and back, which gave us a lift towards the finish line. With no other Clipper boats in sight the thought of a 1st place was getting more and more real. A few tacks and a few hours later we crossed the finish line in 1st place! It was a feeling and a moment I will never forget.
Once across the finish line it was time to drop the sails, put up the sponsor flags and prep to enter the marina. 50 Minutes later and we were dockside, celebrating 26 days at sea, 4,300 nautical miles, and a win of Race 6 in Leg 5 of the 2019-2020 Clipper Round the World Yacht Race. It doesn’t get much better than this!
We spent the morning celebrating, drinking champagne, beer and then gorging ourselves at the all you can eat buffet located at the Subic Bay Yacht Club. That afternoon I checked into my hotel and had the first proper shower in 26 days. One word, luxury.
Our stopover consisted of doing a deep clean of the yacht, followed by a few maintenance days. We ended with the prize giving ceremony, another moment I will never forget.
Due to the corona-virus, Clipper made the choice to not continue on to Zhuhai, China where Leg 5 was supposed to finish. Instead we would do a 1,600 nautical mile race up towards Japan and back, ending Leg 5 in Subic Bay, Philippines. I was bummed but knew it was the right choice for the safety of the crew, Clipper employees and supporters.
We had a few days off before the start of the next race. Half of our crew opted to go on vacation together and we flew to Boracay Island in the Philippines. Some well-deserved R&R was in order.
Back to the boat on February 21st, it was time to go racing again, departing on Sunday, February 23rd. We were in high spirits coming off our race win and knew we were capable of potentially getting on the podium again.
This race course would see light wind sailing up along the east coast of Luzon before the wind would build near the Luzon Strait. The race started and it was close quarters racing for the first 24 hours.
As we entered the Luzon Strait, we opted for a more easterly route that showed promise based off the weather models. This was a tactical move we thought would play in our favor. As in life, if you follow the masses you may or may not make marginal gains on your competitors. If you take calculated risk you may make massive gains, or fail miserably. We made a choice and went with it. It would be four days before we knew if our decision would pay off.
Upwind sailing can be exhilarating, with the boat heeled over at 45 degrees, powering through waves, green water over the bow, it’s absolutely amazing being on deck. Below deck it’s another story. Half your time while ocean racing is spent below deck, living. Simple tasks such as cooking, eating, sleeping and using the bathroom become a laborious task when heeled over. Now spend days in a row doing this. It became a true test of mental and physical resilience. It also gave me major respect for those that have done the big ocean crossings and those doing the circumnavigation. It is not easy.
Unfortunately for us, the weather did not play to our favor this time. We rounded the northern mark of the race course in last place. Disheartening, but we knew we were fast and could start focusing on the next boat ahead. We spent the next few days trying to reel in the boats in front. Sometimes we would cross paths, and pull ahead, only to be overtaken again. This went on all the way to race finish. With less than three nautical miles separating us, currently in last place to 10th place, we hit another wind hole.
And that was it, the race was over. The course had been shortened to ensure we all arrived in port in time for the crew change over on March 6th. My Clipper journey had come to an end. Our team was not discouraged by the defeat of finishing in last place. We knew we raced hard and in racing sometimes tactical choices don’t pay off. It was a life lesson and we were content with the outcome. We agreed with our skipper when he said he would rather have a first place and last place than two mid-fleet finishes.
The Clipper Race experience exceeded my expectations. I grew as a sailor, focusing on my helm work, spinnaker work, weather routing and directing a team as Assistant Watch Leader. I also developed friendships with my crew and crew on other boats that I know will last a lifetime. I was fortunate enough to be able to do this experience and it wouldn’t have been possible without the support of my loving wife. We both agree, live life with no regrets.
If you want to know more about my trip, check out my blog at:
I am also putting together a video series of my time aboard. You can check it out on my YouTube channel at:
In your intro to navigation you’ll be shown charts
that display soundings in feet, fathoms, and meters. These units are entirely
arbitrary, generated not by science but by history, the details of which are
often murky. Ancient units were often, naturally enough, generated from human
body parts: a foot (now standardized to 12 inches), a step or pace (which
became the yard, 36 inches), a hand (4 inches), and a fathom (6 feet), which
was originally the outstretched arms of a man. The
meter is ever-so-slightly more scientifically based (don’t
trouble yourself with that link) and is part of the International System of
Units, abbreviated SI, the most commonly used system worldwide but not here.
In America, we consider it our patriotic duty to avoid being like everyone
else. This makes communicating with others a bother, which it should be. We
also have red, right, returning although much of the world uses green, right,
returning. We pity them.
Nautical history, being long and multicultural, is a
mish mash of all kinds of terms and units of measure like “chains” (66 feet)
and “shots” (roughly an ounce unless you’re friends with the bartender) or “shot
of chain” (90 feet or 15 fathoms) which is a different unit from chains or
shots. A shot is usually the same as a “shackle” but I wouldn’t count on it. The
“chain” is more of a lubberly term; one-quarter of a chain is a rod, and 80
chains is a furlong. But what you sailors want is a “cable”
(I wouldn’t read that either) which is 120 fathoms or 720 feet American
although the French, with their hoity-toity SI system, say it is 200 meters
which works out to about, although not exactly, 109 fathoms.
The fathom, as far as I know, is always used for
depth. (Don’t go into the Home Depot and try to order five square fathoms of
carpeting. Or actually, go ahead, give it a try.) Thus we have the phrase, to
“deep six” something, based on the tradition of burials at sea, which require
the body to be lowered to at least six fathoms. Still, in clear water, this
would not obscure the remains of the departed.
So, to summarize, as a practical example we can give
the following. Once I sailed through the Corinth Canal. The canal is 28 stadia
or 23 cables or 256 chains or 9/10 of a league or 2816 orguia, if it’s easier
for you to think in those, or 16,896 feet or 1,024 rods or 25.6 furlongs or
9,300 cubits (in biblical cubits; but of course in classical Greece, it would
have been 11,140 cubits, due to inflation), 3.202168898848118 statute miles, or
for us sailors, 2.7826086956521739 nautical miles long.
I hope this clarifies things.
Is there a salty term that you’d like to know the meaning or origin of? Many of of the terms and sayings that we use in every day life have nautical origins. Send us your questions and we’ll pass them on to Tony for thorough research and explanation!
Capes, points, and headlands are difficult challenges for mariners. If you have been certified at the BKB level, perhaps you have already encountered a problem returning to Potrero Reach from Keller Cove, the open area between Point Richmond (the old ferry dock) and the Chevron Pier. Sailing upwind against an adverse current, you may have found it frustrating to try to turn the corner past the pilings, each tack seemingly depositing you right back where you started. This is the same issue, on a somewhat grander scale, that makes rounding Cape Horn, or any other cape, nearly impossible in the wrong conditions. In 1905 a full rigged ship named “Susanna” took 99 days to make it around Cape Horn, the longest rounding in history.
Conquering such an obstacle, so that land is now between
your present position and your previous one, is called “doubling” a cape or
point. This term, one of the oldest in the literature of the sea, is first
found in that grandfather of all sailing yarns, Homer’s Odyssey. In book IX Odysseus reports that “…just as I doubled
Malea’s cape, a tide rip and the North Wind drove me way off course,” and that
is when his famous troubles began. Every sailor knows the anxiety of such
roundings, and 3200 years later the Sailing Directions warn the mariner to
approach this cape on the southern tip of the Peloponnesian peninsula with prudence,
for the exact reasons Homer describes.
Those with BCC certification may attempt to double Point
Campbell on the NW corner of Angel Island or Bluff Point on the SE tip of
Tiburon, sometimes tacking against the current on the way into Raccoon Strait. After
BBC, your sailing area expands beyond the line between Peninsula Point at the
tip of Belvedere and Point Stuart on Angel Island. You may fight a fickle
breeze and a contrary current when attempting to get past either one. After
ACC, you’ll be rounding Point Bonita. Who knows what distant capes and headlands
you may one day double.
One of the wonders of our sport is that through the
traditional terms, the ancient skills, and the timeless wind, sea, and
geography that we share with the legendary sailors of olden days, we can relive
some of the most stirring adventures in history–even if all we set out to do
is to double Point Richmond.
Presidents Day — sunny, nice, sometime after one in the
afternoon — my friend Kriya and I were heading back to Tradewinds on a Capri
22. We were ending a short yet enjoyable sail along the Richmond shoreline. As
we motored down the Ford Channel, we wondered what all the hubbub at the
Craneway Pavilion was about. TV vans lined the pier-side, a loudspeaker was
going, and crowds thronged around the building. My friend checked her phone.
“It’s a Bernie Sanders rally!” The candidate himself was speaking at that moment,
being transmitted over the loudspeakers.
Another boat passed us port to port, and after we passed I
kept steering fairly close to the red right-hand marks — I was noticing some
kayakers on the port side, milling around in front of the Rosie the Riveter
National Historical Park building, apparently there for the event too. Wouldn’t
want to hit them.
Less than two minutes later, just as I was about to turn left into the harbor, I grounded Alpha in three feet of water on the mud-bed. This happened as I was looking ahead to the entrance of the marina and at the shoreline concrete steps that mark the inside of that turn. I did not realize immediately what had happened; the boat simply stopped moving ahead. (Look down, Joyce!) I looked at the outboard — had the engine died? No, it still hummed. Had it slipped out of gear? I moved it to neutral, then to reverse—alas too briefly, as glanced nervously at those concrete steps which seemed quite close… then at the end of the breakwall (Look down!) I tried revving the throttle up — obvious No Go.
Looking back, my gaze took in the kayakers and the last red
channel marker we had passed, three or four boat lengths away. It was almost
low tide, probably at about zero just then. I looked down past the transom, to
a pretty clear view of mud beneath the surface of the water. “Oh no, we’re
grounded! We’re on the mud!” I asked Kriya to move over to port side with me,
and we leaned outboard with our combined weight. The boat shifted a little but
sideways only. Illogically, I had the outboard still in forward gear. Did I
think it was just a thin mud bar we could simply slide over? Or that the boat
was oriented parallel to the margin of shallowness and we could simply slide
forward and away from it? I pushed the tiller hard over to starboard, as if
trying to achieve this. Belatedly, I came to more sense and put the motor in
reverse for several seconds at both low and higher throttle. No go. I had
missed my window of opportunity for this to be effective!
I had Kriya call Tradewinds. She handed me the phone and
Angie answered. I explained we were grounded outside the harbor entrance. She
said we’d likely have to wait until the tide rose again. Understandably, they
couldn’t come and risk having another boat grounded as well. Chagrined, and
hoping for a quicker resolution, I said we were not far outside the channel
proper, maybe five or ten feet, and said I thought a tow boat could stay in the
channel and throw us a weighted line, and we could catch it (I said this while
eyeballing the throwing distance — yeah it might work! I could catch that!) And
to my great relief, I was told to wait about fifteen minutes and they’d come in
a whaler. Also, to drop anchor. I told my crew this with relief, and then went
forward and dropped anchor (another first).
Just then a man in a yellow kayak paddled over from the
rally area and asked if we were grounded or anchored. “Both, but grounded
first,” I replied. “Do you want me to kedge your anchor? Do you know what a
kedge is?” Yes, and yes! I lifted the anchor (no great distance) and he put it
atop his kayak and paddled towards almost the center of the channel (while I
paid out the rode) and dropped it. I then worried aloud that it would be a
hazard to any traffic going into and out of the marina. The paddler said it
looked quite deep, it was no problem. Maybe about 30 feet of rode was out?
I then pulled hard on the rode, urging the boat to
dislodge. It did move a ways. Kriya joined in pulling as hard as we could. The
rode was at an oblique angle to the boat. Maybe it wouldn’t fully work at that
angle? But it was the only angle possible, as mud was at our front and other
side. We led the rode back to the halyard winch, and a bit of grinding seemed
like progress for a few moments, but then we felt we might just be dragging the
anchor towards us at this point.
The kayaker used his paddle to measure that we were
grounded in about three feet of water. At his suggestion, my crew and I tried
shifting our weight from port to starboard side to try to rock and dislodge the
boat. “No, you’re pretty stuck.” I thanked him for his time and said help was
coming, and he paddled back to the rally area.
I spent that time sitting near the bow, feeling embarrassed
and disappointed at my obliviousness. Now looking back at the wavy line of
channel markers, it was clear we’d crossed over to the outside. I had been
distracted, looking much more to the left than to the right side, and had
strayed too far from that range of markers as we passed the terminal one. My crew,
on the other hand, seemed to take it in good humor. “We have a front row seat
to the rally!” She filmed a cellphone video as we waited, interviewing me about
where we were, and how it was such a nice day to be grounded, or something like
I instantly cheered up on seeing the whaleboat approach,
with Angie at the wheel and Steve coiling a long length of line, to which was
attached a pink weighted ball. As they slowly neared, I readied for a catch,
but instead we were told to to sit down, under the boom, for protection from
the weighted end. I held up the flotation cushion near our faces for good
measure. After a few initial throws, and with boat hook in my hand ready to
pick up a short throw, a perfect toss by Steve arced the weighted line through
the space between mast and furled jib. I scrambled eagerly to cleat it at the
Then the tow began. Slowly, Alpha dislodged! I took up the
anchor rode as we moved ahead. The hard part for me was pulling up the anchor
out of the water once it was directly under the bow. That little Danforth
really holds. Our rescuers directed us to start our outboard engine, and a
moment later, the anchor had freed and we could lift it back onto the boat. We
I returned the tow line to Steve and Angie. Our boats
motored back to the marina, both docking at the same time. I thanked Steve and
Angie for all their help. “You saved us!” I said I had definitely
learned a good lesson and hoped never to repeat it. Angie said it was good we
had grounded so close to the marina, and Steve quipped that it had made for a
fun part of his day.
Later, at the clubhouse, Angie spread out a chart and other marked maps and shared some fascinating info, including soundings she had done in some shallower-than-expected areas in the Ford channel, Ayala Cove, etc., especially at low tide. A large amount of sedimentation had happened after the Oroville Dam break three years ago. My takeaway from the charts was to stay in the center of the channel when no other traffic was present, and to keep at least three feet away from the channel markers, as sedimentation had encroached past them. Also, she showed that the rocky corner at the harbor entrance was not too much of a depth hazard several feet from the shoreline — no need to over-avoid them, especially with a light northerly wind as we had today…the mud was the lee shore, not the rocky side!
If you’re looking for Lake Powell houseboats for sale, then you’ve found the right place to start your search. Here you will learn about the boat, the amenities it offers, and even how you can find the information you need on the internet. If you are an active boater who likes to travel often, then this may be a great option for you. But if you just need a houseboat for vacations and you live out of state, then we have some great Lake Powell houseboats for sale in our Powells Paradise region. We have all of the features that you would expect from a houseboat including full kitchens with stove, refrigerator, microwave, etc., two or three cabins, decking and storage space for storing boats, a serving room with stocked bar, and a comfortable boat seat.
Reflecting on what happened, I learned three things. One,
to always maintain situational awareness in all directions. Over-awareness of
potential hazard on one side (kayakers, rocky shore) should not have lessened
my focus on staying within the channel. Two, to immediately recognize when one
has grounded — in the case of a small boat of less than five-foot draft, just
look down. Three, to respond immediately by reversing, along with
shifting body weight to try to heel the boat away from the grounding side. What
else? The Tradewinds staff can share wisdom on this. And, they are awesome!
Last time we distinguished three sorts of tonnage
applicable to boats: displacement, deadweight tonnage, and gross and net
register tonnage. The displacement of your sailboat will be given in the
owner’s manual. The deadweight tonnage is not normally a big issue, as we do
not use our boats as cargo vessels. Cruisers, of course, must consider how much
weight to carry before it will adversely affect the sailing characteristics of
The third measurement, gross register tons or GRT, is a
measurement of volume, not weight. On cargo ships this measurement is done
professionally as it relates to tax revenue. But on recreational boats, you’re
on your own. Emails to Catalina Yachts on this issue were not answered, and at Beneteau
I was informed that the manufacturer does not provide the register tonnage of
their boats. The only reason this would matter to you is if you desired to
document your boat with the Coast Guard instead of getting a CF number from the
state of California. The federal documentation includes boxes for gross and net
register tons, but the state registration does not require it.
Basically, you calculate length x beam x depth, multiply
by two factors they give you to account for hull shape and keel type, and
divide by 100. Depth is not to be confused with draft. Depth
is the vertical measurement from the deck (where it meets the hull, not
counting the height of the cabin trunk) to the bilge. The result is a pretty
rough measurement of volume, but precise enough to satisfy Coast Guard
Using the formula, I measured Tradewinds’ Megalina and Lionheart,
two boats that are nominally the same size at 31 feet. Megalina (displacement
8933 lbs.) comes out to 6.5 GRT, while Lionheart (displacement 9170 lbs.) is
6.1 GRT. Since a register ton is 100 cubic feet, this means Megalina’s internal
volume is 650 cubic feet, Lionheart’s 610. (Actually, Megalina’s design with the beam
carried aft and an after cabin, yields a lot more usable interior volume but
this is not represented in the given procedure.) Next, to obtain net register
tons or NRT, we multiply the GRT by .9, yielding 5.85 for Megalina and 5.49 for
Lionheart. Voila! We are now admeasurers!
like getting frustrated, and who doesn’t, you could do no better than trying to
understand the nautical terms associated with tonnage. We have long tons, short
tons, avoirdupois tons, imperial tons,
gross register tons, gross tons, net register tons, net tons, deadweight tons, metric
tons, tonnes, tuns, and just tons and tons of fun.
There are three concepts here which are vaguely related,
and by distinguishing these we can eliminate a whole lot of confusion, but not
The first is the idea of displacement, a measurement
of weight. According to tradition, this was discovered by Archimedes in
his bathtub. It’s the weight of the water displaced when you put something in
it. Imagine placing a floating box in a tub of water filled to the brim. The
weight of the resultant spilled water is the displacement of the vessel
in question. Since the box is hollow we are only measuring the weight of the
empty box. In ships this is expressed in long tons, which equal 2,240 pounds,
or the nearly equivalent metric tons (tonnes), which equal 1000 kilograms or 2204.6
The second idea is deadweight tonnage or DWT,
another measure of weight. This is the weight of just the cargo, or
alternatively, the maximum carrying capacity of the ship. It is expressed in long
tons or metric tons. Adding cargo to our box above increases the total
displacement, and will immerse it lower in the water. How much cargo a boat can
carry by weight is a safety issue; we don’t want it to sink. But how much it
can carry by volume is an issue for the tax man. So we have….
The third concept, which is gross register tonnage (or
GRT), a measurement of volume. Two vessels of the same displacement
may have different internal volumes if one is made from carbon fiber and
another made of steel. It is the internal volume, not the displacement, that is
used to calculate taxes and fees. This volume is confusingly expressed as “register
tons,” even though it is not a measurement of weight. A register ton is equal
to 100 cubic feet. But to measure the functional capacity of the ship, we need
to subtract tanks, engines, crew space, and any other space not usable for
cargo. The result is net register tonnage (or NRT), also measured in register
We promised last time to apply our understanding of the old phrase “hull down” to modern circumstances. The issue arises when making offshore passages. Clearly, single-handers are in violation of Rule 5 of the Colregs because they cannot maintain a watch at all times. But as the majority of long distance cruisers sail with only two crew, when one is asleep and the other is attending to repairs, navigation, or the last chapter of that pot boiler, a proper lookout is not being kept. According to Tradewinds’ respected instructor of offshore passagemaking, Craig Walker, violating Rule 5 “means that if there were a collision, the vessel and skipper not having a look-out would bear at least a portion of the liability for the accident. That said, we need to use our best judgment regarding reasonable risk.” Like the mariners of old, we must determine how long it will take for that ship just appearing on the horizon to come close.
Although container ships generally cruise at a speed in the high teens or low twenties, it is possible for the largest to attain speeds up to thirty knots. So if a sailboat and such a ship are heading directly towards one another, the closing speed could approach 38 knots. The ship’s bridge will be 125 or more feet high, and doing the math from our last issue we can see that that height together with our height of eye will mean she will be visible over the horizon at about 16 miles. At 38 knots our closest point of approach will occur in about 28 minutes. A sport fishing vessel with a height of only 30 feet may be steaming at 10-12 knots, yielding a potential closing speed with us of 20 knots. We will be able to see her at about 10 miles, so a collision could occur in the half-hour range. (Similar considerations along with some others apply to radar as it is also limited by the curvature of the earth. It should be a supplement, not substitute, for the human eye.)
same calculations affect being seen as well as seeing, giving the advantage to a
tri-color light at the masthead which adds an extra six or seven miles’ radius of
visibility as opposed to deck lights.
course in all of the above we are assuming smooth seas, perfect visibility, and
excellent eyesight, so it pays to cut these times at least by half. Stay alert
In a recent column we mentioned the phrase, “hull down.” In the great days of sail, this was the lookout’s way of communicating the distance to a ship he’s sighted, just coming over the horizon. So how far away is a ship that’s “hull down?”
The formula is the same simple one we
use in piloting to tell how far off we are when “dipping a light” on a
lighthouse. The square root of the height of our eye above the water in feet
times 1.17 yields the distance to the horizon in nautical miles. If we use 16
feet as the height of eye—about the height of the forecastle head (bow) where we’ll
have our lookout—we get a result of approximately four and a half miles (SQRT
16 = 4 x 1.17 = 4.68). Eric Hiscock’s “Beyond The West Horizon” sounds like a
romantically distant place, but it’s only as far away as Angel Island. Now, to
get the distance to the lighthouse, or in our case the mast of the enemy, you
add the figure above to the result of the same formula when applied to the estimated
height of the sails we see.
The mast of a full rigged ship will be, say,
150 feet tall (it could be more—HMS Victory had a mainmast that rose 205 feet
above the waterline, for example). Doing the math (SQRT 150 = 12.24 x
1.17=14.3) and adding the height of eye figure above (4.68) we get around 19
nautical miles. On a windy day when they’ve doused their royals and
topgallants, she’ll be somewhat closer when we first see her, about 16 miles. If
we move our lookout up to the fore-top, he’ll be somewhere in the vicinity of 80
feet above the water. We’ll see her sooner if we have our man there, at about 23
miles. The range on a clear day, then, is between 16 and 23 miles. If we’re
sailing towards one another the closing speed could be as high as 16-18 knots,
so we’ll be within an hour or a little more of her. Beat to Quarters! On the other hand if she’s chasing us and closing
at only a knot or less, it could take a day or more to reach us. When the sighted ship is “hull up” it means that the lookout can see the forecastle so she is much closer, so we can do the same calculations as above, but instead of using 150 feet for the top of the mast, we’ll use about 16 as the height of the bow.
There’s a modern use for this
ancient observation technique that we can benefit from, which we’ll get to next
contemporary way of reading a compass is called the “three-figure” method,
referring to the three numerals called out to the helmsperson by the navigator,
as in “steer three-two-zero.” Early compass cards, however, were divided not
into 360 degrees but into 32 points, each one equivalent to 11 degrees, 15
minutes, about the best the early ships could steer. Compass bearings were “East-Southeast”
or “West by North.” Now you might think “West by North” would translate to 315
degrees, halfway between west at 270 and north at 360. But that’s “Northwest.”
Instead, “West by North” is one point north of west or 281.25 degrees. The
sequence from West to North in points is: W, W by N, WNW, NW by W, NW, NW by N,
NNW, N by W, N. Film buffs may notice that Alfred Hitchcock’s “North by
Northwest” is not on this list, because, as the master of mystery knew, there
is no such direction.
Later, things got uglier when, as
navigational skills improved, points were divided into halves and quarters, yielding indecipherable
directions like “East by North ¾ North.” Reciting these divisions was called
“boxing the compass,” and I’m relieved it was in most instances replaced by our
modern (actually ancient Babylonian) 360 degree system so I don’t have to know
it. On my good days, I can count to 360.
Relative bearings in points were,
for example, “two points on the starboard bow,” which translates to 022.5
degrees relative to the ship’s heading. Four points adds up to 045 degrees,
voiced as “broad on the starboard bow;” 090 is “starboard abeam;” and 135 would
be “broad on the starboard quarter.” A vestige of this practice can be found in
the transition between the arc of sidelights and stern light that occurs at
22.5 degrees abaft the beam. Why not an even number? Because 22.5 degrees is two points abaft the beam.
So now you know just how to talk on
those “sail like a pirate” days: “Aaaargh, matey, she’s hull down, one point forward
of the port beam. Steer Southeast by East, sir.” Folks, just a little of this
sort of thing will make a lasting impression on your shipmates. Trust me.